Towards an Understanding of Refugee Segregation, Isolation, Homophily and Ultimately Integration in Turkey Using Call Detail Records.

Integration is recognized by the United Nations’ High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) as one of the main durable solutions for refugees in Turkey. The situation is of great concern, as it is estimated that 3.5 million refugees reside in Turkey, 90% of which are known to live outside of camps. An overwhelming majority are Syrian, women, and children.

Refugee integration is generally understood as a multidimensional long-term and non-linear process that is influenced by the institutional environment of the receiving society, and the personal capacities of the settling population [1]. It can also be considered as the access potential of the settling population to rightful welfare services, as detailed in the UNHCR’s Convention and Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees [2]. Social and spatial segregation are key challenges to the successful implementation of integration programmes. However, However, measuring integration is particularly challenging.

The Migration Policy Group has developed an Integration Evaluation Tool for UNHCR [3], which includes four main types of indicators: policy indicators, administrative indicators, financial inputs, and outcomes. UNHCR also uses indicators of social integration based in four dimensions: legal, social, economic, and political [3][33]. Here, we focus specifically on two of these: residential segregation, which we break into segregation, isolation, and homophily because these have well-established measures [35]; and participation in local activities/groups, which we explore through communication patterns, and mobility traces.